Different Ways You Can Prevent Pregnancy With Their Pros And Cons.
- The Male Condom: A sheath usually made of latex that covers the penis and blocks sperm from reaching the vagina. How effective? 95%. But in actual use about 85%. Side effects: some people have a latex allergy.
- Female condoms: Cheap also, but availability is not as common as the male condom, it is put into the vagina and blocks sperms from reaching the uterus. Side effects: allergies to latex. How effective? About 79%. Many people do not know how to use it properly, some haven’t seen it.
- Cervical cap: A cap-like device that covers the cervix can also be filled with spermicides (substances that kill sperms. The issue is that it has to be in for some hours after sex and some people can develop very serious reactions to the spermicide. How effective? 80%.
- Implants: As big as a match stick, it is implanted under the skin, usually in the upper arm. It affects the cervical mucus and affects ovulation. Can last for 5 years. How effective? 99%. Some side effects: weight gain, breasts tenderness, acne, irregular periods.
- Copper IUD: This is placed inside the womb. It prevents the fertilized egg from joining the womb. Can be used for up to 10 years. How effective? 99%. Some side effects: cramps, spotting, sometimes can go missing in the womb.
- Hormonal IUD: Same as above, the only difference is this one has a hormone that also blocks ovulation and makes cervical mucus thick. How effective? 99+%. Side effects; same as above plus irregular periods.
- Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: You take this one every day, and it also helps to block the cervix by increasing the mucus production and blocking ovulation. It can also reduce the menstrual symptoms. How effective: 91%. It can reduce your risk of ovarian cancer.
- Hormonal injection: Injected into the muscle and released slowly. Used every 3 months, works like the implant. How effective: 98%. There are options like the Sayana Press that can be self-injected. Some side effects: irregular periods, nausea, breast tenderness etc.
- Emergency Pills: These are the ones commonly known as Back Up, Postinor. Works for up to 72 hours after unprotected sex. Effectiveness drops as time passes, can be as high as 98% in the first 24 hours. Not to be taken often, if you are using it often, use a more regular method.
- Bilateral tubal ligation and hysterectomy: They remove the womb or tie the tubes that bring the egg to the womb. How effective: 99+%. Side effects: ectopic pregnancy for some people. Mood changes, depression, etc.
- Vasectomy: The tubes that bring sperm into the penis are cut. Meaning no sperm. How effective: 99+%. Side effects; you can only start having unprotected sex after three months after they have verified that there is no sperm in your ejaculate.
- Natural methods: The couple keeps track of the fertile days of the woman and avoid sex on those days and about 5 days leading to those days. She can also measure her basal body temperature method as well as the thickness of the cervical mucus. Can be difficult to use correctly.
- Withdrawal: Here the man removes his penis just before ejaculation. This method can be quite unreliable as it has a failure rate of as high as 27%. Some men have been shown to have sperm cells in their pre ejaculate, or precum as some call it.